If you’re logging just a few hours of sleep a night, you may actually find yourself gaining weight. Researchers at the University of Chicago Medical Center found that subjects who slept just four hours had a harder time processing carbs. "When you're exhausted, your body lacks the energy to do its normal day-to-day functions, which includes burning calories efficiently," says Talbott.
The calorie calculator is a useful tool to help determine if you are overweight, how many calories you are burning a day and some suggestions to the amount of calories you should consume. After you input information about yourself such as your age, gender, height, activity level and your current weight you can calculate a number pieces of information that are useful in a weight loss process.

This popular plan recently underwent a rebranding to create a more balanced program, changing its four-phase approach with the help of a science advisory board. The Atkins Diet is still low-carb, but you won't be chowing down on steak and eggs all the time to promote weight loss. Lean protein is still key, but there's more of a spotlight on fiber, fruit, vegetables, and healthy fats.


Characteristics: Group meetings for education and support. Individual counseling available. Integrates food, behavior, social support, and exercise. Emphasis on meal planning. Calories not counted daily. Lifestyle fit and convenience is paramount. Weight Watchers food available, not required. Points plan gives points to food based on calories, fat, and fiber. Each person receives a daily point allotment based on current weight. Plan to stay within daily allotment.
The above steps are an attempt at the most basic form of calorie counting. Calorie counting is not an exact science, and can be as complex as you want to make it. The above does not consider proportions of macronutrients consumed. While there is no exactly known, ideal proportion of macronutrients (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) some balance is certainly advisable, and different foods have been found to have different effects on health, feelings of hunger, and number of calories burned. Generally, minimally processed plant and animal foods tend to be more conducive to healthy weight loss and maintenance.

Are you like Old Faithful when it comes to your morning walk or evening jog? Know this: The more you do an activity, the more your body adapts to it, so you burn fewer calories. If you want to light a fire under your metabolism, consider cross-training. For example, if you normally walk, try biking instead. "Since you're not used to working all those different muscles, it's a more intense workout, which can translate into a greater metabolic after-burn because your body is working harder to recover and get oxygen to all your tissues," says Carol Espel, M.S., an exercise physiologist for Equinox Fitness Clubs in New York City.
Avoiding salt doesn’t mean your food has to be bland. Experiment with using different herbs and spices. Try adding fresh cilantro and cumin to grilled fish, lemon and rosemary to chicken, or ginger and Chinese five spice to tempeh or beef. Pick up some spice blends from your local market to help add more spice to your life… just read the ingredients and make sure there’s no salt added.
Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks,[1] increase fitness,[2] and may delay the onset of diabetes.[1] It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee.[2] Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure), however whether this reduces hypertension-related harm is unclear.[1][not in citation given]
You’ll get a list of foods that you can eat on certain days and suggestions on how to prepare them, but it will be up to you to create your meals. The best part is, it comes with access to a private support group where thousands of other women are sharing their favorite recipes for Challenge-approved meals and TONS of support and motivation like this post from Christina:
Grazing is a surprisingly good idea because it helps you avoid metabolic slowdown. "Your body will be tricked into thinking it's constantly eating, so it will never slow your metabolism down," explains Bauer. Aim for five small meals (200 to 500 calories) a day rather than three large ones. Also try not to go more than four hours without eating — if you eat breakfast at 7am, for example, have a snack at 10am, lunch at noon, another snack at 3pm and dinner at 7pm.
Regaining nearly half of the lost weight after one year is usual and most of dieters acquire their first weight within three to five years.[2] Experts believe that if a person sustains even 5-10% of his / her weight loss, it is considered a great achievement.[3] Actually weight maintenance is defined as weight change up to 3% of the actual body weight after weight loss.[4]

Choose a method to track your calories and progress towards your goals. In the likely case that you have a smart phone, there are many easy-to-use applications that facilitate tracking calories, exercise, and progress among other things. Many if not all of these have estimates for the calories in many brand name foods or dishes at restaurants and if not, can estimate calories based on amounts of individual components of foods. It can be difficult to get a good grasp on food proportions and the calories they contain – which is why counting calories (as well as any other approach) is not for everyone – but if you meticulously measure and track the number of calories in some of your typical meals, it quickly becomes easier to accurately estimate without having to actually measure or weigh your food each time. There are also websites that can help to do the same, but if you prefer, manually maintaining an excel spreadsheet or even a pen and paper journal are certainly viable alternatives.
A food journal is much more than just recording what you ate in a day. Food journals help people see how much they're truly eating, and identify any patterns that lead to overeating or snacking on unhealthy foods. You may want to organize your food journal into a graph or a table, or simply record everything diary-style. Just like with your diet, think of writing in your food journal as one of the healthy eating habits you need to pick up.
Fathi, Y., Faghih, S., Zibaeenezhad, M. J., & Tabatabaei, S. H. (2016, February). Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(1), 295–304. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-015-0846-9

When the pounds start coming off, some people are tempted to increase their amount of gym time to accelerate their progress. Don't give in. As with your dietary changes, working out is a lifestyle change, and those don't happen in a week. While it is possible to increase the amount of time you spend at the gym, you don't want to do it all at once in such a way that you either get injured or burn yourself out & start to hate the gym.
WeightWatchers is one of the best known weight loss programs around. The reason it’s successful is that it’s often viewed as one of the easier programs to follow, helping you to change the way you think about and behave around food. Nothing is off limits, so you can still enjoy your favorite meals and snacks, even a drink of alcohol now and then, meaning...
“Eat vegetables before or with meals. Whether you are hungry on your way home or right when you walk in the door, snacking on veggies can help you keep your portions in check once you sit down to a meal. I also recommend starting your dinner with a vegetable salad or vegetable soup to fill you up and prevent overeating. — Ilyse Schapiro, MS, RD, CDN, author of  Should I Scoop Out My Bagel?
SouthBeachDiet.com offers a comprehensive weight loss service which includes coaching, recipes, exercises, tracking tools and more. They now produce a range of additive-free snacks to help you during cravings, plus community support if you need it. The diet was initially designed by a cardiologist and Professor of medicine, but rather than a simple quick fix, it aims to change the way you think about...
“Whether you have ten pounds to lose or 100, the first thing you should do is create an environment for success. That requires removing all temptation from your kitchen. “Collect all of the processed, sugary and fatty foods from your house, and bring them to a local food bank for donation. Then restock your kitchen with healthy groceries—real, natural, whole foods—like fresh fruits and vegetables, almonds and lean proteins like turkey, chicken, fish and eggs.” — Chris Powell, the trainer who has helped hundreds of overweight people lose up to half their body weight on ABC’s reality series  Extreme Weight Loss

The Medi-Weightloss® Program is not just another diet - it’s a physician-supervised and clinically-proven approach that helps our patients achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Our professionals focus on preventive medicine. After medical tests and in-depth consultation with each patient, our medical staff creates an individualized and comprehensive plan for each patient.
“The best thing you can do for your belly is to give up processed foods. A study in the journal Food Nutrition Research found that our bodies burn only 50 percent as many calories digesting processed foods as they do real foods. So it’s like eating twice as much, even if the calories are the same!” — Mark Langowski, celebrity trainer and author of  Eat This, Not That! for Abs
Losing weight quickly is dangerous and comes back quickly. You need to slowly change your habits and make small changes you can build on. Start by being more active; start walking every day and start adding in more and more jogging. Cut out sugary drinks and focus on adding in more veggies and lean proteins in your diet while whittling out processed/fried foods. Be kind to yourself and make the changes for your own happiness, not anything or anyone else.
This is a tricky question. You can eat whatever you want and lose weight as long as you stay in your calorie range. Theoretically, you could eat candy bars all day and lose weight. But you probably wouldn't want to. Why? Because it would be very hard to stay in your calorie range if you don't eat nutritious foods. Healthy foods help you to feel strong, energized and satiated. Empty calorie foods don't provide your body with the nutrients you need to live an active, well life. And when you eat junk food, you're likely to get hungry more often and overeat as a result.
It is important to remember that proper diet and exercise is largely accepted as the best way to lose weight. It is inadvisable to lower calorie intake by more than 1,000 calories per day, as losing more than 2 pounds per week can be unhealthy, and can result in the opposite effect in the near future by reducing metabolism. Losing more than 2 pounds a week will likely involve muscle loss, which in turn lowers BMR since more muscle mass results in higher BMR. Excessive weight loss can also be due to dehydration, which is unhealthy. Furthermore, particularly when exercising in conjunction with dieting, maintaining a good diet is important, since the body needs to be able to support its metabolic processes and replenish itself. Depriving the body of nutrients it requires as part of heavily unhealthy diets can have serious detrimental effects, and weight lost in this manner has been shown in some studies to be unsustainable, since the weight is often regained in the form of fat (putting the participant in a worse state than when beginning the diet). As such, in addition to monitoring calorie intake, it is important to maintain levels of fiber intake as well other nutritional necessities to balance the needs of the body.
Some people prefer to work out with help. Taking a weekly cardio class or hiring a personal trainer are two great ways to keep yourself on track. If you've never been to the gym before, you should start with a personal trainer. Trainers will help you develop an exercise regimen that works for your body and your goals. They also explain how to use the machines, how long you want to stay with each one, and how to vary your workouts. Lastly, trainers will motivate you as you work out and will push you to do more than you may have thought yourself capable of.
Eggs are a fantastic source of protein, and if you're worried about cholesterol, nix the yolks. Other great breakfast foods include whole-grain oatmeal, grapefruit, wheat germ, yogurt, bananas, and tea. Coffee is fine, too, as long as you don't load it up with cream and sugar. If you're a bacon and sausage lover, try substituting turkey bacon or turkey sausage.

Jump up ^ Mann, T; Tomiyama, AJ; Westling, E; Lew, AM; Samuels, B; Chatman, J (April 2007). "Medicare's search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer". The American Psychologist. 62 (3): 220–33. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.666.7484. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.62.3.220. PMID 17469900. In sum, there is little support for the notion that diets ["severely restricting one’s calorie intake"] lead to lasting weight loss or health benefits.
Do you really need to lose weight? We weren't all born to be thin or conform to society's definition of the ideal body. Your body size and shape depend on multiple factors, including your genes, eating patterns, Resting Energy Expenditure (see definition below) and exercise. You may want to accept and Love Your Body while trying to improve your health.
Cereal: This was an interesting one. Finding healthy cereal is a constant battle in my household — I like Special K; my boyfriend prefers the sugary kids stuff. I started scanning. The app couldn’t find Special K, Lucky Charms, Cinnamon Toast Crunch and Reese’s Puffs. Aren’t those classics? It finally found Froot Loops and suggested some other fruity, circular puff-type alternatives.

After dinner, wash all the dishes, wipe down the counters, turn out the light, and, if necessary, tape closed the cabinets and refrigerator. Late-evening eating significantly increases the overall number of calories you eat, a University of Texas study found. Learning how to stop late-night snacking can save 300 or more calories a day, or 31 pounds a year.
Women who ate low-fat dairy products, such as non-fat yogurt and low-fat cheese three to four times a day lost 70 percent more fat than low-dairy dieters, according to a study published in the journal Obesity Research. "Calcium serves as a switch that tells your body to burn excess fat faster," explains study author Michael Zemel, M.D., director of the Nutrition Institute at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. Sorry, but you won't reap the same benefits from calcium-fortified O.J. Research shows that you get the best results from dairy products themselves, not fortified foods. Aim for 1,200 mg, which includes about three servings of dairy a day.
“The best thing you can do for your belly is to give up processed foods. A study in the journal Food Nutrition Research found that our bodies burn only 50 percent as many calories digesting processed foods as they do real foods. So it’s like eating twice as much, even if the calories are the same!” — Mark Langowski, celebrity trainer and author of  Eat This, Not That! for Abs
“When clients come to me, many of them have been through the diet wringer. They’ve tried every fad and gimmick and, of course, they’ve failed to maintain long-term success. The key to weight loss is to never feel like you’re on a diet, because diets don’t work. If you feel deprived, you will never make it past a few weeks. The only way to achieve long-term weight loss is to learn to appreciate food as fuel and slowly replaced processed food that cannot properly energize the body with real food that can. After a while this will become second nature and won’t feel like a daily struggle.” — Laura Burak, MS, RD, CDN

“Research continues to support the role of a high-protein diet and weight loss, however, we don’t want to reach those protein needs exclusively with animal proteins. Plant proteins found in beans not only help us feel full and stabilize blood sugar but beans are associated with longevity. Who cares about being skinny if you die young?” —Jennifer McDaniel, MS, RDN, CSSD, LD, food and nutrition expert

The first output will be your BMI (Body Mass Index). Your BMI is commonly used to determine if you are overweight for your height and this will let you see which weight category you currently fit into. You can then see an estimate of your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Your BMR can be defined as your Calorie expenditure while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state. There is no need to understand these terms, but rather can be viewed as how many Calories you burn a day with no real activity or digestion occurring.


A calorie deficit is simply an energy shortfall. When you create a calorie deficit, you deprive your body of the fuel it needs to function. So, your body burns stored fat (excess weight) for fuel instead. A calorie deficit occurs when you cut calories by eating less than your body needs or burn extra calories with physical activity. You can also combine diet and exercise to create a calorie deficit.
Published in November 2009, this restaurant guide summarizes the best and worst meal choices at popular restaurants, hotel buffets, convenience stores, movie theaters, vending machines, and airport and amusement-park eateries. This restaurant survival guide breaks down each best and worst meal selection by calories, fat, sugar, and/or sodium. Extra points are given to foods that are high in protein and fiber. The book decodes restaurant menus of different cuisines—Japanese, barbecue, Chinese, deli—identifying popular dishes, and providing tips on what to order.
“Your body begins to work differently. This study proves that small amounts of nourishment throughout the day are better than the same amount of food concentrated in three big sittings. If we feed the body at regular intervals we send a signal to the body that it doesn’t have to store calories. Conversely, when we skip meals we send just the opposite signal for the body to store calories, creating a negative effect on the metabolism.” — Dr. Wayne Scott Andersen, co-founder and Medical Director at Take Shape For Life
I got this (well, actually the 2011 version) for my boss who eats at Hooters like everyday and wants to lose his potbelly but refuses to give up junky food. A lot of it's the lesser of two evils, so if you're super jonzing for some fries and you want to TRY to be good, you'll learn that KFC's wedges are actually pretty sensible. It also has a sweet grocery guide where it's not the lesser of two evils, but the better choice, period, arming you for smarter shopping. I started reading it and was so ...more
“Eat vegetables before or with meals. Whether you are hungry on your way home or right when you walk in the door, snacking on veggies can help you keep your portions in check once you sit down to a meal. I also recommend starting your dinner with a vegetable salad or vegetable soup to fill you up and prevent overeating. — Ilyse Schapiro, MS, RD, CDN, author of  Should I Scoop Out My Bagel?
“It’s far more difficult to eat a healthier diet and fit in exercise if you don’t plan ahead. Plan out your meals for the week ahead and go grocery shopping over the weekend to ensure you have the ingredients you need on hand. If you can, do some meal prep in your down time—cut fresh veggies, marinate your protein, cook up a batch of whole grains in advance. When you’re prepared you’re far less likely to order takeout. — Jessica Fishman Levinson, MS, RDN, CDN, culinary-nutrition consultant and founder of Nutritioulicious
What's more trustworthy than a diet built by experts from the Mayo Clinic? Created by doctors, nutritionists, and all-star chefs, the plan has a few phases: In the first, you should lose 6 to 10 pounds in two weeks. After that, you can expect to lose 1 to 2 pounds a week until you reach your goal weight. You're also given plenty of resources and advice to help you keep the weight off.
Noom: To help you figure out how to prioritize or limit food items, Noom offers color coding. Green means go for it — “green” foods include veggies and grains, and these should make up a solid 30% of your diet. “Yellow” foods include lean meats and starches, and these can account for a touch more — 45%. “Red” foods (red meats and sweets) should appear less than both green and yellow, around 25%. When you log meals, the app lets you know how well you’re aligning with these proportions.
Cancer Risk – General good health helps the body beat back harmful influences, including cancer.  Studies show that obesity enhances cancer risk, especially among women.  Hormones produced by fat may be responsible for increased breast cancer risk, as well as other forms of cancer impacting women.  Estrogen responds to lost weight, reducing the amount produced.  There is also reason to believe women suffering from cancer recover faster at optimal weights, than women carrying extra pounds.  The two-fold benefit provides powerful incentives for losing excess fat.
Don't just concentrate on cardio, however. It's important to bring in muscle-building exercises as well. Since you're focusing on losing and maintaining weight, you don't need to spend as much time building muscle as doing cardio. Your personal trainer can help you decide how often you need to focus on muscle-building. Just remember not to leave any muscle groups out. People usually do this by training with the upper body one day and the lower body the next time. To switch it up, do your limbs during one session and your back and core during the next.
The OPTIFAST® program, which usually lasts 26 weeks, is a medically-supervised weight-management program that closely monitors and assesses progress towards better health and emotional well-being. The program utilizes a meal replacement plan that transitions to self-prepared ‘everyday’ meals, in conjunction with comprehensive patient education and support.

Certain dieting and weight-loss resources may include over-the-counter products, commercial programs, and diets. Short-term weight-loss from a low calorie intake is possible with many of these methods. However, most weight-loss methods fail to contribute to healthy long-term weight maintenance, though some may provide helpful guidance regarding a healthy diet, positive lifestyle changes, and physical activity. The following information compares the strengths and weaknesses of several popular weight-loss products, programs, and diets, and also discusses alternatives to dieting that include healthy recommendations for effective weight-loss and long-term weight maintenance.

Even though you are eating well and exercising, you may reach a plateau where your weight stays the same. Plateaus are mainly due to decreased resting energy expenditure (REE). When you consume fewer calories, your REE decreases, thus your body's need for energy decreases. Keep exercising and eating well to help you get through periods with no weight loss. Sometimes a plateau is the body's way of saying that you may not need to lose more weight. If you are meant to lose more weight, eventually weight loss will come as your body's metabolism catches up with your new lifestyle.
Diets with a meal replacement approach have some limitations, which have been mentioned previously. In comparison with the change of dietary macronutrient composition, they have no additional benefits, even though obeying the second one seems more convenient, because they do not need to change a person's food habits. Nutritional counseling can help overweight subjects to learn dietary behaviors for weight gain prevention. It is more effective when a kind of healthy diet such as DASH is followed. Lin's study indicates that lower saturated fat intake and higher plant protein are associated with less weight regain.[65] The DASH dietary approach may change the macronutrient composition of a diet to some extent, however, it does not have the limitations of the meal replacement pattern.
“Diet and exercise are a marriage that should never divorce,” said Giancoli, noting that the benefits of exercise aren’t restricted to the sheer number of calories you burn during thirty minutes on a treadmill. (Need one of those, by the way? We have some favorites.) Instead, research shows that muscle tissue burns more calories than fat tissue, proving that “muscle mass is a key factor in weight loss.”

Farage's truthfulness (as always) never ceases to be refreshing.Most other politicians hate him because they fear his honesty and encyclopaedic knowledge of subject, together with his ample ability to speak it in a language all can understand. It has the excoriating habit of leaving them stripped bare with no hiding place. In fact he is the Nemesis of all in politics who choose to speak rubbish, covertly deceive and/or plot to lie.Carry on Nigel. We're right behind you.


Realizing that eating unhealthy food is a bad habit, like smoking or biting your nails, will help you break the cycle. Going cold turkey on favorite snack foods isn't possible for everyone, and if you relapse and chow down on some chocolate, the first step is to forgive yourself for the lapse. Identify the times of day or the activities you engage in that tempt you to reach for the junk food. Being aware that it's going to happen will help you stave off the cravings and gives you the chance to substitute in a healthier option. Don't be afraid to let your friends and family know what you're doing so they can support and cheer you on, and so they can help you avoid cravings.

We included 45 studies, 39 of which were RCTs. At 12 months, Weight Watchers participants achieved at least 2.6% greater weight loss than those assigned to control/education. Jenny Craig resulted in at least 4.9% greater weight loss at 12 months than control/education and counseling. Nutrisystem resulted in at least 3.8% greater weight loss at 3 months than control/education and counseling. Very-low-calorie programs (Health Management Resources, Medifast, and OPTIFAST) resulted in at least 4.0% greater short-term weight loss than counseling, but some attenuation of effect occurred beyond 6 months when reported. Atkins resulted in 0.1% to 2.9% greater weight loss at 12 months than counseling. Results for SlimFast were mixed. We found limited evidence to evaluate adherence or harms for all programs and weight outcomes for other commercial programs.
“The best thing you can do for your belly is to give up processed foods. A study in the journal Food Nutrition Research found that our bodies burn only 50 percent as many calories digesting processed foods as they do real foods. So it’s like eating twice as much, even if the calories are the same!” — Mark Langowski, celebrity trainer and author of  Eat This, Not That! for Abs
A calorie deficit is simply an energy shortfall. When you create a calorie deficit, you deprive your body of the fuel it needs to function. So, your body burns stored fat (excess weight) for fuel instead. A calorie deficit occurs when you cut calories by eating less than your body needs or burn extra calories with physical activity. You can also combine diet and exercise to create a calorie deficit.
Published in June 2009, the fourth book addresses popular American foods, and lists the best and worst dishes available at chain restaurants. The book guides readers through various restaurants, cuisines and foods with 24 chapters covering topics such as "Best (& Worst) Foods in America”, "Best (& Worst) Pizzas in America," "Best (& Worst) Drinks in America," and "Best (& Worst) Foods for Your Blood Pressure."
Realizing that eating unhealthy food is a bad habit, like smoking or biting your nails, will help you break the cycle. Going cold turkey on favorite snack foods isn't possible for everyone, and if you relapse and chow down on some chocolate, the first step is to forgive yourself for the lapse. Identify the times of day or the activities you engage in that tempt you to reach for the junk food. Being aware that it's going to happen will help you stave off the cravings and gives you the chance to substitute in a healthier option. Don't be afraid to let your friends and family know what you're doing so they can support and cheer you on, and so they can help you avoid cravings.

An energy-restricted diet, with moderate fat, may have more advantages for weight maintenance rather than a low-fat one.[25] When following a low-energy diet (LED), levels of the gut-derived satiety signals decrease, so finding precise solutions for appetite control are necessary. Although a moderate-fat, high in MUFA, with a low GI diet in comparison with low-fat diet leads to an increase in GLP-2 and PYY in the MUFA group, no differences between the diet groups in appetite ratings, ad libitum energy intake or body weight were seen during weight maintenance.[26]


Published in June 2015, this “complete guide to the very best foods for every stage of your pregnancy” is by Zinczenko and Dr. Jennifer Ashton, ABC News’ Chief Women’s Health Correspondent. It’s the first pregnancy book written by a Board-certified OB/GYN who is also Board-certified in obesity medicine and who has a master's degree in Clinical Nutrition from Columbia University.
Some factors that influence the number of calories a person needs to remain healthy include age, weight, height, sex, levels of physical activity, and overall general health. For example, a physically active 25-year-old male that is 6 feet in height requires considerably higher calorie intake than a 5-foot-tall, sedentary 70-year-old woman. Though it differs depending on age and activity level, adult males generally require 2,000-3000 calories per day to maintain weight while adult females need around 1,600-2,400 according to the U.S Department of Health.
Getting enough protein every day, whether you’re in a quick-fix or long-term mindset is important for keeping your muscles and metabolism healthy throughout weight loss. Make sure you’re having some chicken breast, lean ground turkey, fish, seafood or tempeh that’s the size of a deck of cards at every meal. When snacking, have 2 eggs, 1/4 cup of nuts, or 3/4 cup of Greek yogurt or cottage cheese to meet your protein needs and stay full and feel slim.
Athletes at their prime must consume many more calories than the average person to be at peak performance, but as they age and become less active may find that their old eating habits are hard to break. Former athletes who have gained weight and want to become lean and muscular as they age may turn to weight loss programs for help getting on track.
Fighting constantly with your S.O.? It’s time to address your issues head-on. "Research has shown that cortisol, the hormone that's released during stressful activity, is linked to fat storage,” says Gina Guddet, couples counselor and co-author of Love Metabolism. “And poor communication between couples is the most common type of stress that you tend to experience."
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