Harvie, M. N., Pegington, M., Mattson, M. P., Frystyk, J., Dillon, B., Evans, G., … Howell, A. (2011, May). The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: A randomized trial in young overweight women. International Journal of Obesity (London), 35(5), 714–727. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3017674/
Diets with a meal replacement approach have some limitations, which have been mentioned previously. In comparison with the change of dietary macronutrient composition, they have no additional benefits, even though obeying the second one seems more convenient, because they do not need to change a person's food habits. Nutritional counseling can help overweight subjects to learn dietary behaviors for weight gain prevention. It is more effective when a kind of healthy diet such as DASH is followed. Lin's study indicates that lower saturated fat intake and higher plant protein are associated with less weight regain.[65] The DASH dietary approach may change the macronutrient composition of a diet to some extent, however, it does not have the limitations of the meal replacement pattern.
Protein is also important for preserving muscle mass as you lose weight. If you cut back dramatically on calories and drop weight too fast, your muscles can suffer. Your body starts pulling from lean tissue like muscles and organs to fuel itself, and your metabolism slows to conserve energy. That’s why super restrictive diets that have you dropping weight fast aren’t healthy over the long run.
As a general rule, most experts say that a total weekly calorie deficit of 3,500 calories will lead you to lose one pound of weight. If you cut more calories, you'll lose weight faster. But it is not safe or practical to cut too many calories. Very low-calorie diets (less than 800-1000 calories per day) can backfire and should only be followed with a doctor's supervision.

Meal replacement has been used for weight loss as a successful strategy.[47] Its advantages are, easier adherence, reduced food choices, as well as controlled calorie and nutrient content, but it may be boring for a long period.[3,4] Nevertheless, its effectiveness in weight maintenance is a subject under discussion. It can be the consequence of a different macronutrient composition or the number of meals that were replaced.
OPTAVIA's Fuelings and plans have been scientifically-developed to help you achieve a healthy weight. We work with a cross-disciplinary Scientific Advisory Board comprised of physicians and scientists who help guide our portfolio of offerings. Since 1980, our products and programs have been recommended by more than 20,000 doctors and used by more than one million Clients.

There is no "best" diet because every dieter is different and has a different lifestyle with different needs. The diet that will work best for you is the diet you can stick to. For some people, a do-it-yourself program is best. But others benefit from the structured approach of a commercial weight loss program. Ask yourself key questions about your lifestyle (do you cook? how much time do you have to shop for healthy food? what is your budget?) and then make a decision that fits your needs. 
If you can keep up motivation and accountability without the assistance of an app or a like-minded community, the book should give you all necessary tools. While we weren’t floored by Mayo’s online offerings, the app does have one cool feature (if you can get it to work): Enable your camera to eyeball the correct size of any food item in comparison to a virtual baseball, hockey puck, set of dice.

Having actual caloric measurements can also assist in weight loss, since tangible calorie goals can be set, rather than simply trying to eat less. Also, although this is not necessarily directly related to calorie counting, studies have shown that portion control by simply eating from a smaller plate can help reduce calorie intake, since people tend to fill their plates and eat everything on their plates. Many people do not realize that they are overeating, since they have become accustomed to restaurant-sized portions being the norm, when said portions can be up to three or more times larger than necessary for a typical meal.
Weight Watchers, The Mayo Clinic Diet, and especially Noom provide a lot of behavior-based support to integrate these good habits. These include learning portions, logging food, and both giving and receiving external support. Nutrisystem doesn’t ask for any behavior changes save for subsisting almost entirely off their pre-packaged, pre-portioned meals.
The value obtained from this equation is the estimated number of calories a person can consume in a day to maintain their body-weight assuming they remain at rest. This value is multiplied by an activity factor (generally 1.2-1.95) dependent on a person's typical levels of exercise in order to obtain a more realistic value for maintaining body-weight (since people are less likely to be at rest throughout the course of an entire day). 1 pound of body weight, or approximately 0.45 kg, equates to about 3,500 calories. As such, in order to lose 1 pound per week, it is recommended that 500 calories be shaved off the estimate of calories necessary for weight maintenance per day. For example, if a person has an estimated allotment of 2,500 calories per day to maintain body-weight, consuming 2,000 calories per day for one week would theoretically result in 3,500 calories (or 1 pound) lost during the period.
Some people prefer to work out with help. Taking a weekly cardio class or hiring a personal trainer are two great ways to keep yourself on track. If you've never been to the gym before, you should start with a personal trainer. Trainers will help you develop an exercise regimen that works for your body and your goals. They also explain how to use the machines, how long you want to stay with each one, and how to vary your workouts. Lastly, trainers will motivate you as you work out and will push you to do more than you may have thought yourself capable of.
Plain and simple: We just don't feel full by liquid calories in quite the same way as we do real food. Drinking a juice or caramel coffee drink, for instance, won't make you feel full the way eating a bowl of veggie- and protein-packed stir-fry will. So monitor your intake of juice, soda, sweetened coffee and tea, and alcoholic beverages. If you consume each of those beverages during the day, you'll have taken in at least 800 extra calories by nighttime — and you'll still be hungry. (Incidentally, alcohol may suppress the metabolism of fat, making it tougher for you to burn those calories.) Some other ways to skip sugar? Check 'em out here.

Everyone’s body is different when it comes to digesting some gas-forming foods, but there are a few you should be wary of: It’s best to avoid beans and cruciferous veggies (think cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and broccoli) for a couple of days if you want to look slimmer. Choose lean proteins like chicken and fish or, if you’re vegetarian, go for small amounts of nuts and seeds for protein. Pair with non-gassy vegetables like asparagus, spinach, and cucumber to help prevent bloat.


You’ve heard of a self-fulfilling prophecy? If you keep focusing on things you can’t do, like resisting junk food or getting out the door for a daily walk, chances are you won’t do them. Instead (whether you believe it or not) repeat positive thoughts to yourself. “I can lose weight.” “I will get out for my walk today.” “I know I can resist the pastry cart after dinner.” Repeat these phrases and before too long, they will become true for you.
As funny as it sounds, sleep deprivation may make you fat — and not just because you're susceptible to cases of the late-night munchies (although there's that too). There's tons of research that demonstrates getting less than the desired amount — about 7 hours — of sleep per night can slow down your metabolism. Plus, when you're awake for longer, you're naturally more likely to nosh. So don't skimp on your ZZZs, and you'll be rewarded with an extra edge when it comes to shedding pounds quickly.

A sedentary activity means little or no exercise in your daily routine. A person living a sedentary lifestyle is often sitting or lying down while engaged in an activity like working at a desk, reading, watching television and more. If this sounds like you and you get little to no exercises in your typical day, then select sedentary in the weight loss calculator.
Keep in mind that a number on a scale won't give you the full picture. The scale does not discriminate between fat and muscle, nor will it tell you about the health of your heart or your increased endurance. If you are burning fat while gaining muscle, your weight may not change. Instead of giving up, consider non-weight-related goals, such as how many laps you can swim in one go.
One study from the University of Adelaide in Australia suggests you may lose more weight when you work out towards the end of your menstrual cycle, as opposed to right when a new one begins. That’s because the hormones estrogen and progesterone tell your body to use fat as an energy source. "Women burned about 30 percent more fat for the two weeks following ovulation to about two days before menstruation," study author Leanne Redman says.
In the UK, up to 5% of the general population is underweight, but more than 10% of those with lung or gastrointestinal diseases and who have recently had surgery.[30] According to data in the UK using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), which incorporates unintentional weight loss, more than 10% of the population over the age of 65 is at risk of malnutrition.[30] A high proportion (10-60%) of hospital patients are also at risk, along with a similar proportion in care homes.[30]
We pulled the top 14 of the best commercial diets (marketed to the public for profit) and the top 12 of the best diets overall. We also threw five of the most popular diet apps into the mix. Since these are largely tracking devices that don’t espouse unique eating habits, they don’t appear to meet US News’ definition of diet, but are still potentially effective weight loss tools.

Another popular mainstream diet, Dr. Barry Sears's plan is considered to be one of the first in the recent wave of "anti-inflammatory" plans. It sets you up for success by calibrating your plate to be a third protein and two-thirds carbohydrates (not starchy ones like potatoes, think colorful vegetables instead) with a little bit of MUFAs, or monounsaturated fatty acids (the good-for-you kind ) in the mix.


It has been shown that a greater resting metabolic rate (RMR) at baseline, increased dietary restraint, and low frequency of dieting,[8] are associated with weight regain. A meta-analysis in 2001, revealed that using a very low energy diet (VLED) for weight loss or losing more than 20 kg are two predictors of weight maintenance,[9] however, one study that assessed the method of weight loss, declared that patients on VLED gain more weight after the end of the weight loss period, but a self-directed approach was more successful in this regard.[10] Low intake of takeaway and fast foods,[11] reduction of food consumption, adherence to a low-fat diet,[12] and lower sugar-sweetened beverage consumption[13] are some of the behaviors of maintaining the weight loss. Adopting these behaviors as a habit needs supportive strategies by virtue of phone or email.[14]
the main idea of this book is to help you find out whats good to eat and whats not. it helps you find the just right foods, that help get full. and not gain a lot of weight, this book is a guide book. for people who want to lose weight but dont what to work out. it helps you find the perfect comintment that you can agree with to help you lose weight.
Commercial weight-loss programs such as Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, NutriSystem and Diet Center, usually offer a 1,000 to 1,500 calorie diet and individual or group counseling. Though many individuals find long-term success with these programs, some participants still struggle with healthy weight-maintenance. In the past, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has brought action against some of these companies, challenging their weight loss and maintenance claims.
A University of Vermont study found that online weight-loss buddies help you keep the weight off. The researchers followed volunteers for 18 months. Those assigned to an Internet-based weight maintenance program sustained their weight loss better than those who met face-to-face in a support group. These are 50 ways you can lose weight without a lick of exercise.
Cancer, a very common and sometimes fatal cause of unexplained (idiopathic) weight loss. About one-third of unintentional weight loss cases are secondary to malignancy. Cancers to suspect in patients with unexplained weight loss include gastrointestinal, prostate, hepatobiliary (hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer), ovarian, hematologic or lung malignancies.

“When clients come to me, many of them have been through the diet wringer. They’ve tried every fad and gimmick and, of course, they’ve failed to maintain long-term success. The key to weight loss is to never feel like you’re on a diet, because diets don’t work. If you feel deprived, you will never make it past a few weeks. The only way to achieve long-term weight loss is to learn to appreciate food as fuel and slowly replaced processed food that cannot properly energize the body with real food that can. After a while this will become second nature and won’t feel like a daily struggle.” — Laura Burak, MS, RD, CDN


Another product intended for weightloss is powdered beverage formulas or shakes- often mixed with a glass of milk and substituted for one or more meals. Those who consume these beverages may lose weight initially, though it is usually regained once the beverages are discontinued. By relying on shakes instead of whole foods, dieters follow artificial dieting methods and avoid learning how to incorporate healthy food choices into their lives.
Speaking of intervals, high-intensity interval training (otherwise known as HIIT) has been shown to be incredibly effective for weight loss. Because the workouts are so intense, you don't need to put in an hour — or even 30 minutes — at the gym. According to the American College of Sports Medicine, seven minutes is all you need to get in the best shape of your life.
On RM Lifestyle®, patients are given a comprehensive meal plan and diet guidelines based on their body composition analysis which focuses on their optimum macronutrient balance of lean protein, healthy fats and complex carbohydrates. In accompaniment of prescription appetite suppressants, Weight Loss Shots, and medical-grade supplements patients lose up to 10 pounds or more per month.
Watching the scale will also help you calibrate your diet again. You won't be eating quite the same way when you're trying to maintain a stable body mass, since your focus isn't creating a calorie deficit but maintaining a healthy level of calories each day. Your nutritionist and personal trainer can help you with this. Even if you're going it alone, slight eating habit alterations will show up during your weekly weigh-in.
Don't just concentrate on cardio, however. It's important to bring in muscle-building exercises as well. Since you're focusing on losing and maintaining weight, you don't need to spend as much time building muscle as doing cardio. Your personal trainer can help you decide how often you need to focus on muscle-building. Just remember not to leave any muscle groups out. People usually do this by training with the upper body one day and the lower body the next time. To switch it up, do your limbs during one session and your back and core during the next.
For starters, we can forget about finding instant fixes and miracle cures for what are essentially pathological lifestyle habits. “We must stop falling for the myths that keep us fat and perpetuate an endless cycle of weight loss and gain,” says Mark Hyman, MD, best-selling author of The Blood Sugar Solution and other books, and medical director of the Center for Functional Medicine at Cleveland Clinic.

Instead, slowly cut out one bad food at a time as you introduce new, healthier options into your lifestyle. One great way to do this is to "crowd out" the bad foods with the good. Focus on getting your daily vitamins and nutrients, and fill up on those foods first. You may find that you're not hungry enough for a snack later, and even if you are, you've already met your day's nutrition goals.

It's no surprise that Dr. Dean Ornish's program is such a powerful tool for weight loss, considering its easy adaptability as a lasting lifestyle. The diet is mostly plant-based, keeps sodium intake in moderation, and limits coffee to a cup a day (two cups decaf) — so if you're looking to lose weight while keeping your java flow, you may want to consider another plan.

You'll also be asked about your activity habits. If your body is more active during the day, it requires more fuel (in the form of calories). Try to be as honest as possible about your exercise and daily activity habits. If you fudge the numbers, you won't get an accurate result. If you're not sure how active you are during the day, keep an activity journal for a week or look at data from your fitness tracker to get a quick estimate.
Diets with a meal replacement approach have some limitations, which have been mentioned previously. In comparison with the change of dietary macronutrient composition, they have no additional benefits, even though obeying the second one seems more convenient, because they do not need to change a person's food habits. Nutritional counseling can help overweight subjects to learn dietary behaviors for weight gain prevention. It is more effective when a kind of healthy diet such as DASH is followed. Lin's study indicates that lower saturated fat intake and higher plant protein are associated with less weight regain.[65] The DASH dietary approach may change the macronutrient composition of a diet to some extent, however, it does not have the limitations of the meal replacement pattern.
Make it Fun: If exercise is boring, not fun, and/or painful most people won't keep at it. This is why joining a gym and losing 10 pounds are common new year's resolutions which are quickly forgotten by February each and every year. Make exercising easy, convenient and fun and you will keep at it.If walking or something simple like that is too boring, consider adding an MP3 player and listen to songs or podcasts, or add some other form of entertainment into your mix.
I’m a pretty health-conscious person who buys a mixture of produce and meats, supplemented by packaged items (FoodSwitch only includes information for packaged items). To test the app, I went to Mariano’s, narrowed my standard grocery list to 10 items and tried to find healthier alternatives. All 10 items had a few things in common — they were popular brands with a reputation for being not so healthy.

“If you’re feeling deprived by your diet, build in a cheat meal at least once a week in which you can indulge guilt-free. Doing this will help you avoid viewing certain foods as ‘off limits,’ which will help you crave them less.” — David Zinczenko, author of  Zero Belly Cookbook: 150+ Delicious Recipes to Flatten Your Belly, Turn Off Your Fat Genes, and Help Keep You Lean for Life!


You’re more likely to eat more—and eat more high-fat, high-calorie foods—when you eat out than when you eat at home. Restaurants today serve such large portions that many have switched to larger plates and tables to accommodate them. You’ll gasp when you see just how bad the unhealthiest restaurant meals in America are. Don’t miss these 9 ways your kitchen setup can help you lose weight.

Noom helps you find and hold onto your Why while learning about other, smaller concepts that contribute to success. Self-awareness is big with Noom. The app offers short daily lessons that help you see and confront your own typical actions through introducing things like behavioral chains and triggers. If you can get past all the incessantly cheeky language (#noomerslovehashtags), it’s truly impressive how Noom deploys behavioral psychology to influence how you approach wellness.
Conversely, the more food in front of you, the more you’ll eat—regardless of how hungry you are. So instead of using regular dinner plates that range these days from 10 to 14 inches (making them look empty if they’re not heaped with food), serve your main course on salad plates (about 7 to 9 inches wide). Instead of 16-ounce glasses and oversized coffee mugs, return to the old days of 8-ounce glasses and 6-ounce coffee cups.
A low carbohydrate diet, high MUFA diet, high carbohydrate-low GI diet, high carbohydrate-low GI diet plus intensive support or nurse support, and low CHO / Pro diet have no major effects on the maintenance of weight loss in comparison with a low-fat diet, high protein-low GI diet, high MUFA diet plus intensive support or nurse support, and high CHO / Pro diet, respectively.[18,19,20,21]
There is some scientific legitimacy to today’s lower-carb diets: Large amounts of simple carbohydrates from white flour and added sugar can wreak havoc on your blood sugar and lead to weight gain. While avoiding sugar, white rice, and white flour, however, you should eat plenty of whole-grain breads and brown rice. One Harvard study of 74,000 women found that those who ate more than two daily servings of whole grains were 49 percent less likely to be overweight than those who ate the white stuff. Eating whole grains is not only one of many great ways to lose weight; it can also make you smarter.
What's more trustworthy than a diet built by experts from the Mayo Clinic? Created by doctors, nutritionists, and all-star chefs, the plan has a few phases: In the first, you should lose 6 to 10 pounds in two weeks. After that, you can expect to lose 1 to 2 pounds a week until you reach your goal weight. You're also given plenty of resources and advice to help you keep the weight off.

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans those who achieve and manage a healthy weight do so most successfully by being careful to consume just enough calories to meet their needs, and being physically active.[10] According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), healthy individuals seeking to maintain their weight should consume 2,000 calories (8.4 MJ) per day.[citation needed]

“There are many foods that aid weight loss, but one that I often recommend to my clients and eat myself is grapefruit. Researchers at Scripps Clinic in San Diego found that when obese people ate half a grapefruit before each meal, they dropped an average of 3.5 pounds over 12 weeks. Apparently, the tangy fruit can lower insulin, a fat-storage hormone, and that can lead to weight loss. Plus, since it’s at least 90% water, it can fill you up so you eat less. However, if you are on certain medications you should not have grapefruit or grapefruit juice, so check the label on all your prescriptions, or ask your pharmacist or doctor. — Patricia Bannan, MS, RDN, author of  Eat Right When Time is Tight.
This is a tricky question. You can eat whatever you want and lose weight as long as you stay in your calorie range. Theoretically, you could eat candy bars all day and lose weight. But you probably wouldn't want to. Why? Because it would be very hard to stay in your calorie range if you don't eat nutritious foods. Healthy foods help you to feel strong, energized and satiated. Empty calorie foods don't provide your body with the nutrients you need to live an active, well life. And when you eat junk food, you're likely to get hungry more often and overeat as a result.

Weight Watchers, which not only champions a sustainable diet but has sustained itself for over fifty years, is a favorite amongst nutritionists. Its practical, flexible philosophy of saving and splurging SmartPoints boils down to balancing out food choices. You can get tips, tools, and motivation by attending the traditional weekly meetings, or get the same resources through its user-friendly app. Either way, research proves that Weight Watchers’ social element supports weight loss. At about $4 a week, OnlinePlus costs about half as much as Meetings+OnlinePlus, which runs around $8 (your fees vary depending on the length of your commitment).


MyFitnessPal: An app widely recommended by trainers and fitness enthusiasts, MyFitnessPal is great for tracking macros. Goal macros: 50% carbs, 30% fat, 20% protein. It further breaks these general guidelines into specific gram amounts that make it easy to see how some macros add up quick (carbs) and others don’t (protein — hitting 64 grams takes conscious effort!).


Loads of research demonstrates people who log everything they eat — especially those who log while they're eating — are more likely to lose weight and keep it off for the long-haul. Start tracking on an app like MyFitnessPal when the pounds start sneaking up on you. It'll help you stay accountable for what you've eaten. Plus, you can easily identify some other areas of your daily eats that could use a little improvement when it's written out in front of you.

When the pounds start coming off, some people are tempted to increase their amount of gym time to accelerate their progress. Don't give in. As with your dietary changes, working out is a lifestyle change, and those don't happen in a week. While it is possible to increase the amount of time you spend at the gym, you don't want to do it all at once in such a way that you either get injured or burn yourself out & start to hate the gym.
Track your progress over time and make changes to better achieve your goals if necessary. Remember that weight loss alone is not the sole determinant of health and fitness, and you should take other factors such as fat vs. muscle loss/gain into account as well. Also, it is recommended that measurements be taken over longer periods of time such as a week (rather than daily) as significant variations in weight can occur simply based on water intake or time of day. It is also ideal to take measurements under consistent conditions, such as weighing yourself as soon as you wake up and before breakfast, rather than at different times throughout the day.
Weight loss once again came in first place for New Year’s Resolutions, sharing its spot with “becoming a better person.” For a lot of us, becoming a better person starts with feeling better about ourselves. The start of a new year may be primetime to renew dedication to health and happiness, but periodic sprints of weight loss do not equate to wellness. That’s why the best diet is the one you can sustain for the rest of your life.
Conversely, the more food in front of you, the more you’ll eat—regardless of how hungry you are. So instead of using regular dinner plates that range these days from 10 to 14 inches (making them look empty if they’re not heaped with food), serve your main course on salad plates (about 7 to 9 inches wide). Instead of 16-ounce glasses and oversized coffee mugs, return to the old days of 8-ounce glasses and 6-ounce coffee cups.

It has been shown that a greater resting metabolic rate (RMR) at baseline, increased dietary restraint, and low frequency of dieting,[8] are associated with weight regain. A meta-analysis in 2001, revealed that using a very low energy diet (VLED) for weight loss or losing more than 20 kg are two predictors of weight maintenance,[9] however, one study that assessed the method of weight loss, declared that patients on VLED gain more weight after the end of the weight loss period, but a self-directed approach was more successful in this regard.[10] Low intake of takeaway and fast foods,[11] reduction of food consumption, adherence to a low-fat diet,[12] and lower sugar-sweetened beverage consumption[13] are some of the behaviors of maintaining the weight loss. Adopting these behaviors as a habit needs supportive strategies by virtue of phone or email.[14]
“There are many foods that aid weight loss, but one that I often recommend to my clients and eat myself is grapefruit. Researchers at Scripps Clinic in San Diego found that when obese people ate half a grapefruit before each meal, they dropped an average of 3.5 pounds over 12 weeks. Apparently, the tangy fruit can lower insulin, a fat-storage hormone, and that can lead to weight loss. Plus, since it’s at least 90% water, it can fill you up so you eat less. However, if you are on certain medications you should not have grapefruit or grapefruit juice, so check the label on all your prescriptions, or ask your pharmacist or doctor. — Patricia Bannan, MS, RDN, author of  Eat Right When Time is Tight.

Don't get me wrong — exercising at any time is good for you. But evening activity may be particularly beneficial because many people's metabolism slows down toward the end of the day. Thirty minutes of aerobic activity before dinner increases your metabolic rate and may keep it elevated for another two or three hours, even after you've stopped moving. What that means for you: You're less likely to go back for seconds or thirds. Plus, it'll help you relax post meal so you won't be tempted by stress-induced grazing that can rack up calories, quickly.
There are many approaches to weight loss and there is no set ideal method that works for all people, which is why so many different diets and exercise regimens exist. While some methods are more effective for each individual person, not all weight loss methods are equivalent, and studies suggest that some approaches are healthier than others. That being said, one of the most commonly effective weight loss methods is counting calories. In its most basic form, calories consumed minus calories expended will result in weight gain if the result is positive, or weight loss if the result is negative. However, this is far from a comprehensive picture, and many other factors play a role in affecting healthy, sustainable weight loss. For example, there exist conflicting studies addressing whether or not the type of calories or foods consumed, or how they are consumed, affects weight loss. Studies have shown that foods that require a person to chew more and are more difficult to digest result in the body burning more calories, sometimes referred to as the thermic effect of food. While the increase in burned calories may be marginal, foods that are more difficult to digest such as vegetables generally tend to be healthier and provide more nutrients for fewer calories than many processed foods.

It’s also important not to use indulgences as a reward for eating healthy. It’s better to own the reality that you consumed an indulgent food and that it has an assigned place in your healthy life than to justify its consumption because you ate well all week long. If indulgent choices still elicit guilt, you might ask yourself if your eating plan is too restrictive.


Harvie, M. N., Pegington, M., Mattson, M. P., Frystyk, J., Dillon, B., Evans, G., … Howell, A. (2011, May). The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: A randomized trial in young overweight women. International Journal of Obesity (London), 35(5), 714–727. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3017674/
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