Evolution of the Human Diet: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable by Peter S. Ungar. Diet is key to understanding the ecology and evolution of our distant ancestors and their kin, the early hominins. A study of the range of foods eaten by our progenitors underscores just how unhealthy many of our diets are today. This volume brings together authorities from disparate fields to offer new insights into the diets of our ancestors. Paleontologists, archaeologists, primatologists, nutritionists and other researchers all contribute pieces to the puzzle. The book has four sections: Reconstructed diets based on hominin fossils--tooth size, shape, structure, wear, and chemistry, mandibular biomechanics. Archaeological evidence of subsistence--stone tools and modified bones. Models of early hominin diets based on the diets of living primates--both human and non-human, paleoecology, and energetics. Nutritional analyses and their implications for evolutionary medicine.
In the 1950s, the American Diabetes Association, in conjunction with the U.S. Public Health Service, introduced the "exchange scheme". This allowed people to swap foods of similar nutrition value (e.g., carbohydrate) for another. For example, if wishing to have more than normal carbohydrates for dessert, one could cut back on potatoes in one's first course. The exchange scheme was revised in 1976, 1986, and 1995.[10]
Trying to devise an ideal diet by studying contemporary hunter-gatherers is difficult because of the great disparities that exist; for example, the animal-derived calorie percentage ranges from 25% for the Gwi people of southern Africa to 99% for the Alaskan Nunamiut.[40] Descendants of populations with different diets have different genetic adaptations to those diets, such as the ability to digest sugars from starchy foods.[40] Modern hunter-gatherers tend to exercise considerably more than modern office workers, protecting them from heart disease and diabetes, though highly processed modern foods also contribute to diabetes when those populations move into cities.[40]
I’ve tried low carb on and off over the years. It’s never stuck, and I’ve read a lot of advice that just hasn’t make it any more livable for me. I’ve settled on a lowER carb diet, ditching all flours, grains, dairy, and most sugars. I never eat junk food, and cook nearly everything myself. I eat enough fibrous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower…) and leafy greens to stay somewhat full. Water and black/green tea are my only beverages. Even though I gave up fruit for three whole months before, it wasn’t worth it for me. I will never give up fruit again, and the whole fruit-in-moderation advice didn’t work for me, either. Fresh fruit is the very last true culinary enjoyment I have left, and my quality of life without fresh fruit–berries, citrus, melons–plummets. I don’t eat dried fruit, and I work out five to six days a week with high intensity, focusing on large muscle groups; and walk with friends or alone nearly every day. I’d rather exercise more than give up fruit. I just came back from a session with my trainer and after a lean, nutritious lunch working at my desk, just had a snack of about 3/4-cup blueberries before meeting up with a friend in about a half hour for a 5-mile walk. And that snack (I’d have had more if I’d had more berries in the fridge) made today’s workout worth it for me.

Phase 1. This two-week phase is designed to eliminate cravings for foods high in sugar and refined starches to jump-start weight loss. You cut out almost all carbohydrates from your diet, including pasta, rice, bread and fruit. You can't drink fruit juice or any alcohol. You focus on eating lean protein, such as seafood, skinless poultry, lean beef and soy products. You can also eat high-fiber vegetables, low-fat dairy and foods with healthy, unsaturated fats, including avocados, nuts and seeds.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by:

There are no meetings to attend or packaged meals to buy. The food is easy to find in the grocery store, and there’s very little cooking or food prep needed. But you may feel very hungry on the diet, so you may need willpower to get through 3 days without cheating. You’ll only be eating about 1,500 calories daily, so you may feel more sluggish than usual. If you choose to exercise, it may make you even more tired.
A great question to ask is “Does the Paleo diet work?” Here we have a head to head comparison between the Paleo diet and Mediterranean diet in insulin resistant Type 2 Diabetics. The results? The Paleo diet group REVERSED the signs and symptoms of insulin resistant, Type 2 diabetes. The Mediterranean diet showed little if any improvements. It is worth noting that the Mediterranean diet is generally held up by our government as “the diet to emulate” despite better alternatives. You can find an abstract and the complete paper here.

You don’t have to avoid carbs entirely, but you do have to be careful about how many you eat at one time. The best choices are carbs that contain a lot of fiber like beans, whole grains, starchy vegetables, and fruit. I try to eat less than 40g carb per meal and that’s more than many other people with diabetes eat. Experiment to see what your body can tolerate.


Although sugar does not cause the blood sugar to rise any higher than other carbohydrates, it should be eaten along with other healthy foods. If you choose to drink a 12-ounce can of a sugar-sweetened soft drink, that would use up about 45 grams of carba, and you wouldn't have gotten any nutrition (protein, vitamins, or minerals). What a waste of calories!
To determine the diet rankings, US News & World Report selected a 25-person expert panel from the country's top dietitians, dietary consultants, and physicians specializing in diabetes, heart health, and weight loss. The panel included Lisa Sasson, MS, RDN, CDN, a clinical assistant professor and dietetic internship director in the department of nutrition and food studies at New York University; Jill Weisenberger, MS, RDN, CDE, CHWC, FAND, a nutrition and diabetes expert; and David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP, FACLM, founding director of Yale University's Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and founder of the True Health Initiative.4
Grass-fed meat is recommended on the paleo diet because it is leaner than meat from grain-fed animals and has more omega-3 fatty acids, the healthy fats that reduce inflammation in the body and protect your heart. A typical American diet is high in saturated and trans fats and lower in healthy poly- and monounsaturated fats, hence the paleo diet's emphasis on grass-fed meats, as well as seafood.
For instance, the fat allowance of the diet may be problematic. “My biggest hang-up with the paleo diet is all of the saturated fats it promotes with all of the meats,” explains Holley, noting that you could look for a locally sourced meat, whose origin and method of raising you're aware of, as a healthier option. Saturated fat from meat has been linked with an increased risk of early death. (9)

Jump up ^ Jönsson T, Ahrén B, Pacini G, Sundler F, Wierup N, Steen S, Sjöberg T, Ugander M, Frostegård J, Göransson L, Lindeberg S (November 2006). "A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs". Nutrition & Metabolism. 3 (39): 39. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-39. PMC 1635051. PMID 17081292.
I would agree with many, but not all of your points. “Fat and carbs don’t make us fat. It’s only processed fat (vegetable oil) and processed carbs (white flour and added sugar) in processed foods (foods with more than one ingredient) that inherently lead to overeating and weight gain.” I have also said this throughout my website and one of the biggest myths I try to bust is that we are not NO carb we are LOW carb. By removing processed food from our daily diet, we almost become low carb by default. Nutrient dense, low-carb whole foods are encouraged but not to be overdone. Lower carb diets reduce insulin resistance and inflammation. Lower carb diets, with healthy fats, gives a better blood lipid profile and lower TG which is the best predictor of heart health. There are so many benefits from eating nutrient dense lower carb whole foods.

1/4 cup oats soaked overnight with 1/4 cup almond milk and 1/4 cup unsweetened yogurt is good, oats are easy to digest and soaking releases the phytates lowering the effect of the carbs. Add fresh strawberries, and a wee sprinkle of sugar-free sweetener if you need it, or a pinch of salt is nice too! 1/4 cup oats is not going to raise your blood sugar, but gives you the nutrients you need as a nursing Mum.
The Paleo Diet Cookbook: More than 150 recipes for Paleo Breakfasts, Lunches, Dinners, Snacks, and Beverages by Loren Cordain. Also contains two weeks of meal plans and shopping and pantry tips. Helps you lose weight and boost your health and energy by focusing on lean protein and non-starchy vegetables and fruits. Note that this is a very low-fat book and is being marketed as such. Published December 7, 2010.
Firstly read the “How to start” page which will cover how to start slowly and give up the most obvious places of sugar first, then cut back on all carbs such as bread, pasta, rice, starchy vegetables etc. You must also cut back on all seed oils such as canola, sunflower, margarine, spreads etc. These cause inflammation. Go back to healthy fats such as olive oil, butter, coconut oil, etc. Take a look at the lists on the page. To make your own meal plan, take a look at all my breakfast, lunch and dinner recipes. Choose which ones are easy to start with such as scrambled eggs for breakfast, salad and last nights dinner for lunch, and dinner meals made the low carb way. Join us on Facebook and Pinterest too for more ideas and suggestions. Good luck xxx
I started seeing a nutritionist, who has started me on a B-12 injection 2 times monthly, and a LCHF diet. He wants me to stay between 20-35 carbs daily for at least 3 months. He says I need to buy ketone strips, to make sure I don’t go into ketoacidosis, however, I am otherwise healthy, and not diabetic. Is this something I need to be overly concerned about? I’m on my 4th day of approx. 25 carbs daily, and other than a slight headache, I feel fine.

While the South Beach Diet focuses on healthy eating overall, some phases are pretty extreme, and its total elimination of refined carbs and white sugar makes it difficult for some people to follow. You may need to muster up major willpower to stick to the program and see significant long-term results. That said, the South Beach Diet provides the essential online tools – including tracking features and an active member community – to provide the encouragement and support you need to succeed.
The South Beach Diet was developed in the mid-1990s by celebrity doctor Arthur Agatston with the assistance of Marie Almon, the former chief dietitian at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami Beach, Florida.[14][15][16] Originally called the Modified Carbohydrate Diet, the plan was renamed the South Beach Diet after the South Beach neighborhood in Miami Beach near Agatston's practice.[15]

The first stage lasts for two weeks and is expected to reduce your desire for sugar and artificial starch and trigger weight loss.  The goal is to reduce fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Emphasis is placed on the consumption of fiber rich, nutrient-dense food. You may eat meat, fish, chicken, vegetable fiber, lean cheese, eggs, fat-free dairy products, healthy, unsaturated fatty acids that can, for example, be found in avocado, nuts, and seeds. Use oil for cooking, for example, olive oil, which contains high levels polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Don’t be afraid of fruit! Yes, fruits have sugar, but they also have fiber and beneficial nutrients like potassium and vitamin C. One serving is approximately 1 cup of berries or 1/2 a large apple or banana. I’ve found the fruits that work best for me are blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, apples, pears, and oranges. Eating fruit with a meal works better for me than eating it on its own. I consider it dessert!
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) advocates for a healthy diet with an emphasis on balancing energy intake with exercise. Historically, they have advocated for the majority of calories coming from complex carbohydrates from whole grains such as whole-grain bread and other whole-grain cereal products and a decreased intake of total fat with most of it coming from unsaturated fat.

Breakfast on day 1 includes grapefruit, toast, peanut butter and coffee or tea. There are a range of important vitamins and minerals present in this meal.  Starting out with the grapefruit, you’ll get 28% of the Vitamin A and over half of your Vitamin C requirements for the day, all with just a half a grapefruit! Vitamin A is vital because it helps the body in a number of areas including vision, promoting healthy skin and mucous membranes, the immune system and bone/ tooth growth. The Vitamin C is equally important. Although it may stop short of curing the common cold, this vitamin does support your immune system and helps your body to absorb iron. Grapefruit packs in the nutritional value and also contains Vitamin B-6, potassium and plenty of fiber. Vitamin B-6 is important for protein metabolism and is also indispensable in forming new red blood cells (1), while potassium helps to maintain fluid balance in the body, supports nerve transmission and acts in muscle contractions as well (2). Finally, fiber is what keeps your digestive system moving and is essential in any diet; especially one focused on weight loss.
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