The rationale for the Paleolithic diet derives from proponents' claims relating to evolutionary medicine.[22] Advocates of the diet state that humans were genetically adapted to eating specifically those foods that were readily available to them in their local environments. These foods therefore shaped the nutritional needs of Paleolithic humans. They argue that the physiology and metabolism of modern humans have changed little since the Paleolithic era.[23] Natural selection is a long process, and the cultural and lifestyle changes introduced by western culture have occurred quickly. The argument is that modern humans have therefore not been able to adapt to the new circumstances.[24] The agricultural revolution brought the addition of grains and dairy to the diet.[25]
Low-carbohydrate diets may improve cardiovascular risk factors and are effective for achieving weight loss.[14] Low-carbohydrate diets are not an option recommended in the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which instead recommends a low fat diet. A systematic review of 62,421 participants in 10 dietary trials found that reducing dietary fat intake had no effect on coronary heart disease and had no effect on overall mortality. The authors of this meta-analysis conclude that the available evidence from randomized controlled trials does not support the recommendation of the 2015 - 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans that people reduce their fat intake.[15]
If the idea of overhauling your entire way of shopping and eating seems daunting, start small. Wiping the slate entirely clean may not be necessary. Instead, take steps toward eating more in the Mediterranean-style. Choose one of these strategies below, and make it a habit. When you're ready, move onto the next strategy. No matter where you choose to start, these seven tips for starting a Mediterranean diet can help you makeover your plate so you can reap the benefits.
Because this is an eating pattern – not a structured diet – you're on your own to figure out how many calories you should eat to lose or maintain your weight, what you'll do to stay active and how you'll shape your Mediterranean menu. The Mediterranean diet pyramid should help get you started. The pyramid emphasizes eating fruits, veggies, whole grains, beans, nuts, legumes, olive oil, and flavorful herbs and spices; fish and seafood at least a couple of times a week; and poultry, eggs, cheese and yogurt in moderation, while saving sweets and red meat for special occasions. Top it off with a splash of red wine (if you want), remember to stay physically active and you're set.
If lunch was a nutritional bust, then dinner is your chance for redemption. Focus on creating a balanced plate, and challenge yourself to go meatless at least once a week. Find small ways to boost the nutrition of your meal, whether it’s piling fresh arugula over homemade pizza, tossing leftover grilled veggies into pasta, or sprinkling chopped nuts or seeds over a salad.

We cannot time travel and join our Paleo ancestors by the campfire as they prepare to eat; likewise, shards of ancient pottery and fossilized teeth can tell us only so much. If we compare the diets of so-called modern hunter-gatherers, however, we see just how difficult it is to find meaningful commonalities and extract useful dietary guidelines from their disparate lives (see infographic). Which hunter–gatherer tribe are we supposed to mimic, exactly? How do we reconcile the Inuit diet—mostly the flesh of sea mammals—with the more varied plant and land animal diet of the Hadza or !Kung? Chucking the many different hunter–gather diets into a blender to come up with some kind of quintessential smoothie is a little ridiculous. "Too often modern health problems are portrayed as the result of eating 'bad' foods that are departures from the natural human diet…This is a fundamentally flawed approach to assessing human nutritional needs," Leonard wrote. "Our species was not designed to subsist on a single, optimal diet. What is remarkable about human beings is the extraordinary variety of what we eat. We have been able to thrive in almost every ecosystem on the Earth, consuming diets ranging from almost all animal foods among populations of the Arctic to primarily tubers and cereal grains among populations in the high Andes.”
The Paleo Answer: 7 Days to Lose Weight, Feel Great, Stay Young by Loren Cordain. The author shows you how to supercharge the Paleo diet for optimal lifelong health and weight loss. Featuring a new prescriptive 7-day plan and surprising revelations from the author's original research, it's the most powerful Paleo guide yet. Published December 20, 2011.
Beyond plant foods, another major staple of the diet is locally caught fish and a moderate consumption of cow, goat or sheep cheeses and yogurts that are included as a way to receive healthy fats and cholesterol. Fish like sardines and anchovies are a central part of the diet, which usually is traditionally lower in meat products than many Western diets today.
The Mediterranean diet often is cited as beneficial for being low in saturated fat and high in monounsaturated fat and dietary fiber. One of the main explanations is thought to be the health effects of olive oil included in the Mediterranean diet. Olive oil contains monounsaturated fats, most notably oleic acid, which is under clinical research for its potential health benefits.[7] The European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies approved health claims on olive oil, for protection by its polyphenols against oxidation of blood lipids[20] and for the contribution to the maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol levels by replacing saturated fats in the diet with oleic acid[21] (Commission Regulation (EU) 432/2012 of 16 May 2012).[22] A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that an elevated consumption of olive oil is associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and stroke, while monounsaturated fatty acids of mixed animal and plant origin showed no significant effects.[8]

Lucky for me, I did South Beach while it was freezing outside. I’m usually a self-appointed lower-middle-class socialite, but none of my friends wanted to leave their place during the cold snap, so I was able to stay in and cook and sleep. The handful of times that I did go out, I found the diet challenging. There’s something nice about having a few drinks at a birthday party or over a delicious meal.
The new research is unlikely to end the decades-long debate over the best diet for weight loss. But it provides strong new evidence that all calories are not metabolically alike to the body. And it suggests that the popular advice on weight loss promoted by health authorities — count calories, reduce portion sizes and lower your fat intake — might be outdated.
Milk is limited. There are no long-term risks to eating Mediterranean, says Cohen. But you may be put off if you’re big on eating a lot of milk and rely on it to get all the calcium you need. You’ll get to eat cheese and yogurt, but in smaller amounts. "To get enough calcium in the diet without milk, one would need to eat enough yogurt and cheese, or seek nondairy calcium sources," says Cohen. If needed, drink skim milk. Otherwise, nondairy calcium sources include fortified almond milk, sardines, kale, and tofu made with calcium sulfate. (30)
A surprisingly hilarious dark comedy show, laughed many times while watching this season. Show flows very well and uses humor at great times.A surprisingly hilarious dark comedy show, laughed many times while watching this season. Show flows very well and uses humor at great times. Wasn't expecting it too be so dark before watching it but I am glad it took that route. The two leads in the show Barrymore and Olyphant carry the show where as the supporting cast isn't great but they have their moments for sure. A very well written story that continues from episode to episode. A great late night watch if your looking to get a good laugh from a show.… Expand
Low-carb diets, especially very low-carb diets, may lead to greater short-term weight loss than do low-fat diets. But most studies have found that at 12 or 24 months, the benefits of a low-carb diet are not very large. A 2015 review found that higher protein, low-carbohydrate diets may offer a slight advantage in terms of weight loss and loss of fat mass compared with a normal protein diet.
It’s easy to find more guidance online, but a book also makes a handy reference. "The Paleo Diet," for example, outlines basic Paleo principles and offers three “levels” that allow for different degrees of cheating – three “open meals” per week on the “entry level” plan, two on “maintenance” and just one on “maximal.” Depending on the level, you might also get “transitional” condiments (low-fat dressing and salsa) and drinks (coffee, beer or wine in moderation) to wash down the meat and plants. You can use the levels as you like. Start with the first and move gradually to the more restrictive – or just stay put. For more dramatic changes, head right to the third.
Humans during the Paleolithic era ate meat for survival, not for long-term health. Fortunately, humans of today are living under less brutal, and more enlightened, conditions. It’s difficult to argue that the Paleolithic diet’s requirement for meat is in sync with our genetic footprint, and the oversight is proving fatal for both the Paleo diet and, perhaps, for those following it.
Some things the researchers were conflicted about included possible advantages of ketogenic diets, such as whether they provide “metabolic benefits beyond those of moderate carbohydrate restriction.” They also said more research is needed to determine keto’s success in treatment for diabetes, its health effects generally, as well as its long-term sustainability and potential environmental toll.

The Hiwi are not particularly healthy. Compared to the Ache, a hunter–gatherer tribe in Paraguay, the Hiwi are shorter, thinner, more lethargic and less well nourished. Hiwi men and women of all ages constantly complain of hunger. Many Hiwi are heavily infected with parasitic hookworms, which burrow into the small intestine and feed on blood. And only 50 percent of Hiwi children survive beyond the age of 15.
Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tablespoons (23 grams) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. To achieve this possible benefit, olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. (4)
Cordain admits that meat leads to plaque and increases cholesterol where plants wouldn’t. And science establishes that plaque and cholesterol lead to heart attacks and strokes. But Cordain argues that plaque alone is insufficient to cause harm. Rather, it is plaque combined with inflammation that causes heart attacks and strokes. So avoid acid, salt, legumes, wheat, starchy vegetables, dairy, oil, fatty meats, and grains because they cause inflammation. But if both science and Cordain agree that plaque is a necessary part of the heart-disease equation—and that meat causes plaque—why should we follow Paleo rather than just forgo meat?
Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples (Expanded Edition) by Don R. Brothwell and Patricia Brothwell is a survey of what is known archaeologically about food and drink in pre-modern times. The chapter on insects includes their food value. In beverages it covers what happens to a neglected jar of fruit juice. Under cannibalism it shows evidence of this being done in paleo times, thought most of the work focuses on the classical and near-eastern civilizations, but occasional mention is made of the mesoamerican cultures as well. There is taxonomic and anatomical information.
Could this be the healthiest salad you've ever eaten? It's only 200 calories and packed with vegetables, including cucumbers, watercress, artichoke hearts, celery, and red onion, and gets a hint of tangy flavor from feta cheese. Even the simple dressing—fresh lemon juice and extra-virgin olive oil—is heart healthy and light. Cucumbers are a Mediterranean superfood as they're very low in calories; provide 62% of the vitamin K recommended for daily-consumption, and offer a healthy dose of vitamin C.
Dr. Agatston says, "The South Beach Diet became an overnight sensation, but it was a program I had been working on in my practice for many years. We were the first diet to propose that it is not about eliminating fats and carbs, but rather the quality of the fats and carbs you’re eating. That principal still holds true. ... The over-consumption of sugar, whether simple sugar or from refined carbs, can lead to diabetes and heart disease. It is one of the biggest problems in many Americans’ diets and adds no nutritional value. In fact, I would say fats aren’t making us gain weight, sugar is."
The Mediterranean diet wasn’t built as a weight loss plan — in fact, because it wasn’t developed at all, but is a style of eating of a region of people that evolved naturally over centuries, there’s no official way to follow it. But it’s popular because it’s a well-rounded approach to eating that isn’t restrictive. Two of the five Blue Zones — areas where people live longer and have lower rates of disease — are located in Mediterranean cities (Ikaria, Greece and Sardinia, Italy). (2) These places are known for having some of the lowest rates of heart disease and cancer worldwide. (3)
Many dieters shy away from nuts because of their high calorie and fat count. But studies show that eating a handful several times a week can prevent heart disease and ultimately help you shed pounds since they fill you up and stop you from snacking on other things. Almonds, in particular, contain lots of monounsaturated fats and fiber. (Healthy swap: Replace peanut butter with almond butter.)
In 1967, Irwin Stillman published The Doctor's Quick Weight Loss Diet. The "Stillman diet" is a high-protein, low-carbohydrate, and low-fat diet. It is regarded as one of the first low-carbohydrate diets to become popular in the United States.[67] Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the Air Force diet[68] and the drinking man's diet.[69] Austrian physician Wolfgang Lutz published his book Leben Ohne Brot (Life Without Bread) in 1967.[70] However, it was not well known in the English-speaking world.

As of 2015 the AHA stated categorically that it doesn't recommend high-protein diets. It states: "The American Heart Association doesn't recommend high-protein diets for weight loss. Some of these diets restrict healthful foods that provide essential nutrients and don't provide the variety of foods needed to adequately meet nutritional needs. People who stay on these diets very long may not get enough vitamins and minerals and face other potential health risks."[31] A science advisory from the association further states the association's position that these diets may be associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease.[32] Robert H. Eckel, past president, noted that a low-carbohydrate diet could potentially meet AHA guidelines if it conformed to the AHA guidelines for low fat content.[33]

Some studies of low carbohydrate diet permit up to 40% of dietary calories as carbohydrate, which leads to null bias, as this level of mild carbohydrate restriction is inadequate to produce the metabolic changes seen with more significant restriction of carbohydrate intake. Compared with those on a low fat diet, persons who restrict dietary carbohydrate intake to less than 26% of total dietary calorie intake have a greater reduction in body weight but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol and also a greater increase in LDL-cholesterol.[24]
Although guidelines include 2 cups of dairy (like milk and cheese) per day, this isn’t enough. “You absolutely need a calcium supplement, 500 milligrams with vitamin D, in the morning and in the evening. I also don’t like the idea that there’s no fruit and no starch during phase 1,” says Schmidt, though this is less of a problem if you’re only on it for the two weeks.
What makes some grub extra satisfying? "Fiber and protein can help," says Barbara Rolls, author of "The Ultimate Volumetrics Diet." Getting more bang for your bite matters, too: Low-energy-density foods, which yield big portions for few calories, "allow you to eat more without gaining weight," Rolls says. Want some of that? Make room for these secret-weapon picks.
You won't find any of what could traditionally be labeled social commentary on Santa Clarita Diet, but it's clear where the characters stand. In Season 1, Joel and Sheila describe their ideal kill as a young, single Hitler. In Season 2, they find a group of Nazis that Sheila wants to snack on like her own personal lobster tank. When one of them turns out to be in a wheelchair, the Hammonds panic; Is it a hate crime to kill him? Has he committed a hate crime? Would it be discriminatory to not kill him when they've chosen the Nazis as their targets? The moral dilemma plays out in furtive whispers in their "kill room"; again, irony strengthens the whole scenario and leads to a satisfying conclusion.
Much worse was the book’s “dessert” recipe for almond ricotta crème, using part-skim ricotta, artificial sweetener, and almond extract. It was a complete abomination that brought to mind almond-flavored lasagna. There were a few ricotta dessert recipes in those pages, but you can’t just decide cheese is something else. It’s still cheese! I was so offended by the ricotta crème that I didn’t try any of the other dessert recipes.
Paul Burke's Neo-Dieter's Handbook: When We Lost Our Nutritional Roots; Where to Find These Foods Today by Paul Burke M. Ed. The book focuses on nutrition, the right nutrition to enhance health, exercise, weight training, and fitness. The diet consists of lean protein, vegetables, nuts, and fruit. He is opposed to grains. He wants you to stay away from grain-fed meat. The single review at Amazon.com gives the book 5 stars. Published August 21, 2009.
Adopting the general sheen of a family comedy lets Santa Clarita deliver lines about bile and dismemberment the way other TV families talk about household chores (when Joel misremembers Sheila's favorite appendage to eat, she gives him a classic "Do you even listen to me?"). The dissonance and irony beget comedy gold – the best laughs are always unexpected.
You'll get a chance to eat rich-tasting foods like roasted sweet potatoes, hummus, and even this Lima Bean Spread. You digest them slowly so that you feel full longer. Hunger's not a problem when you can munch on nuts, olives, or bites of low-fat cheese when a craving strikes. Feta and halloumi are lower in fat than cheddar but still rich and tasty.
In 2013, a landmark study of more than 7,000 people in Spain was published. The study’s subjects were split into three groups: those receiving advice about following a Mediterranean diet and getting extra-virgin olive oil delivered to their home; receiving advice about following the Mediterranean diet and getting nuts delivered to their home; and, in the control group, receiving advice about following a low-fat diet.

Exercise is a vital part of the live-by-your-genetic-code equation. Surviving in the Stone Age meant a constant on-the-go lifestyle that probably required 4,000-plus calories a day, according to David L. Katz, MD, director of the Yale University Prevention Research Center. Even most people who hit the gym regularly won't need to eat that many calories, but the principle of using food as fuel to exercise still stands.
Jump up ^ Teff KL, Grudziak J, Townsend RR, Dunn TN, Grant RW, Adams SH, et al. (May 2009). "Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 94 (5): 1562–9. doi:10.1210/jc.2008-2192. PMC 2684484. PMID 19208729.
Experts estimate that our ancestors consumed a one-to-one ratio of calories from meats to produce. Since you have to eat a lot of salad to consume the same amount of calories in a steak, the paleo diet should ideally include mostly fruits and vegetables, Katz says. However, many people don't realize that and eat too much meat. Consuming excess protein and not enough carbs can cause kidney damage and also increase your risk of osteoporosis, Dr. Ochner says. Plus, since most of today's meats are higher in saturated fat than those of yesteryear, it can increase the risk of heart disease, Dr. Katz says.

We have been lied to all our lives and told to eat plenty of whole grains and low fat. Grains have been genetically modified for so long and its effects on the human body have never been tested. Following the Paleo Diet principles have changed my life and helped me lose 37 pounds effortlessly. My health has vastly improved and I no longer have uncontrollable junk food cravings. I didn't know the cravings could be stopped, I just assumed I had no will power. My Doctor recommended this diet and I can't thank him enough! If you follow this way of living you will never regret it so buy this book and improve you health now!

Hi Michele – it can be overwhelming at first, especially when all of the food arrives for the first time! Have you downloaded the South Beach Diet app yet? That has been the best way for me to keep track of menu planning and staying on track, so I would definitely get that if you haven’t yet. You can find more info about it here: https://tracker.southbeachdiet.com – there is also a tab for their “PALM” site that can help keep things sorted too. Hope that helps!


While most beverages don't satisfy hunger very well, drinks blended full of air are an exception: They cause people to feel satiated and eat less at their next meal, according to a Penn State University study. Just be sure you're not whipping your smoothie full of sugary, caloric ingredients like fruit juices or flavored syrups, which will negate the health benefits.
Grass-fed meat is recommended on the paleo diet because it is leaner than meat from grain-fed animals and has more omega-3 fatty acids, the healthy fats that reduce inflammation in the body and protect your heart. A typical American diet is high in saturated and trans fats and lower in healthy poly- and monounsaturated fats, hence the paleo diet's emphasis on grass-fed meats, as well as seafood.
The Paleolithic Prescription: A Program of Diet & Exercise and a Design for Living by S. Boyd Eaton, M.D., Marjorie Shostak and Melvin Konner. This book, published in 1988, was the start of the Paleolithic diet movement. Its recommendations are not in line with what today is considered a paleo diet, as whole grain breads and pastas, legumes and some low fat dairy products are allowed. However, it is still a profoundly important book. Used books are available for a reasonable price.
The paleo diet runs on the same foods our hunter-gather ancestors supposedly ate: fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, and nuts. "By following these nutritional guidelines, we put our diet more in line with the evolutionary pressures that shaped our current genetics, which in turn positively influences health and well being," says Loren Cordain, PhD, professor of health and exercise science at Colorado State University and author of The Paleo Diet. He says the diet lessens the body's glycemic load, has a healthy ratio of saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acids, increases vitamin and nutrient consumption, and contains an optimal balance of protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
You still have to cap alcohol. The hallmark of a Mediterranean diet is that drinking red wine socially is thought to be one reason why the diet is so healthy. But women should still stick to one glass, and men two glasses. If you have a history of breast cancer in the family, know that any alcohol consumption raises that risk. (31) In that case, talk to your doctor to find out what’s right for you.
So what does the science say about the paleo diet? Some research suggests that the health claims hold truth. A review analyzed four randomized, controlled trials with 159 participants, and researchers found that the paleo diet led to more short-term improvements in some risk factors for chronic disease (including waist circumference and fasting blood sugar) compared with other control diets. (4)
They bury Gary’s remains in the desert. Abby and Eric follow them discovering Sheila killed Gary. While covering up the murder Dan sees Joel spraying his grass in the middle of the night and gets suspicious. Joel consults a virologist but he thinks Joel is crazy. Dan comes to inspect the grass and Joel tells him they have ants. Abby ditches school with Eric. Joel tries to get Sheila to eat meat but she says since she ate Gary she does not want anything but humans. Joel suggests that maybe it is the freshness that matters. Sheila continues to act impulsively including killing a rooster. After they make the sale on the listing Sheila tells Joel she couldn’t eat the rooster. Joel reiterates that they cannot kill people. Joel and Sheila try to find an alternate food source at the morgue but Sheila can’t stand the cadaver flesh. Sheila’s hunger is growing so Joel tells her they are going to kill people so she can eat. They have been together since high school and he is not going to leave her now. Abby comes and sleeps in their bed because she is worried about the changes.
Jump up ^ Hou JK, Lee D, Lewis J (October 2014). "Diet and inflammatory bowel disease: review of patient-targeted recommendations". Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (Review). 12 (10): 1592–600. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2013.09.063. PMC 4021001. PMID 24107394. Even less evidence exists for the efficacy of the SCD, FODMAP, or Paleo diets. Furthermore, the practicality of maintaining these interventions over long periods of time is doubtful.
Some things the researchers were conflicted about included possible advantages of ketogenic diets, such as whether they provide “metabolic benefits beyond those of moderate carbohydrate restriction.” They also said more research is needed to determine keto’s success in treatment for diabetes, its health effects generally, as well as its long-term sustainability and potential environmental toll.

The following links tend towards news reports of scientific studies that point out some positive aspect of the paleo diet. If you are looking for current news reports, I suggest signing up for Google Alerts for the Type: News. I have three set up, for: "caveman diet," "paleo diet," and "paleolithic diet." You can also set them up for blogs and/or websites.
Sweden's Staffan Lindeberg has a home page Paleolithic Diet in Medical Nutrition [archive.org]. A recent study of Staffan's has A Paleolithic diet improving glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Also see his first web page, an overview of his Kitava study: On the Benefits of Ancient Diets. Now he has a book Food and Western Disease: Health and nutrition from an evolutionary perspective. Here's a book review: Easy to Read, Informative, Packed with Footnotes on Studies.
When following the Paleo diet, you will cut the trans fats and the omega-6 polyunsaturated fats in your diet and increase the healthful monounsaturated and omega-3 fats that were the mainstays of our ancestors. Recent large population studies, known as meta analyses, show that saturated fats have little or no adverse effects upon cardiovascular disease risk.
Hi Deloris – Personally, I think Nutrisystem is the best meal delivery diet and the one I recommend most. That said, South Beach Diet is a great option too. The meals and food types vary between programs, so I’d suggest looking at both menus to see if there’s one that you might like better. When it comes to weight loss, they both work about the same – 1 to 2 pounds per week for most folks. Hope that helps – NS
Hi Ruthann – for the most part you’ll just need to buy vegetables to eat alongside your South Beach meals. When first starting the program they recommend 5 servings of “non-starchy” vegetables per day. Here’s a good guide to follow for getting started, including the types of veggies you will want to buy: https://palm.southbeachdiet.com/south-beach-living/what-do-i-eat-week-1/. You will also want to download their app, as that also really helps with meal planning. Best – NS
You can eat what you love. It’s evident that with such a variety of whole, fresh foods available to you as options, it’s easy to build meals based on the diet. And, you don’t have to eliminate your favorites, either. They may just require some tweaks. For instance, rather than a sausage and pepperoni pizza, you’d choose one piled high with veggies and topped with some cheese. You can also fit in a lot of food into one meal. Filling up on fresh foods like fruits and vegetables will allow you to build volume into meals for fewer calories.
Kevin Hall, an obesity researcher at the National Institutes of Health who has studied low-carb diets, pointed out that the researchers used a technique called doubly labeled water to measure calorie burn before and throughout the study. This involves giving study participants a sample of water that contains (or is “labeled with”) forms of the elements deuterium and oxygen-18. Since they’re not normally found in the body, researchers can determine a person’s metabolic rate — how much energy they’re burning each day — by tracking how quickly they’re expelled through urine sampling.
Phase one, aka “Body Reboot,” includes seven days’ worth of food: three meals and two snacks (a bar and shake). You'll eat lean protein (fish, shellfish, chicken, turkey and soy) and healthy fats, and add in your own fresh grocery vegetables and non-starchy vegetables. You won't touch fruit, fruit juice, starches (including pasta, rice and bread), whole grains, sugary foods or alcohol.
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